Květen 2009

1. English Speaking Countries

13. května 2009 v 15:39 AJ
1. English speaking countries (Ireland, USA, Autralia)

English-speaking countries are the countries where the main language is English. English is a Western Germanic language originating in England. Is the third most widely used language in the world. Today, English is spoken in many countries around the world.

The mother tongue is also used in these countries: United Kingdom, Ireland, United States of America, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and South Africa. English is used among people from different countries who do not understand each other, but use it as an international means of communication.



Country Name: conventional short form is Ireland or local short form is Eire

Government Type: republic, parliamentary democracy

Capital: Dublin

Administrative Divisions:
26 counties: Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork, Donegal, Dublin, Galway, Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim, Limerick, Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon, Sligo, Tipperary, Waterford, Westmeath, Wexford, Wicklow
Area: total: 70.280 sq km
land: 68.890 sq km
water: 1.390 sq km
Population: 4.203.200

Suffrage (voleb. právo): 18 years of age, universal

Executive Branch (výkon.moc)
Chief of state: President (Mary MCALEESE - since 11 November 1997)
Head of government: Prime Minister (Brian COWEN - since 7 May 2008)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with previous nomination by the prime minister and approval of the House of Representatives

Legislative Branch (zákonodárná moc): bicameral Parliament or Oireachtas consists of the Senate or Seanad Eireann (60 seats; 49 members elected by the universities and from candidates put forward by five vocational panels, 11 are nominated by the prime minister; to serve five-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Dail Eireann (166 seats; members are elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve five-year terms)

Judical Branch (vrchní a dolní soud, ústavy): Supreme Court (judges appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister and cabinet)

Main Political Parties: the Green Party, Fania Fail, the Progressive Democrats, Labor Party, the Workers' Party

International Organizations Participation: CE (commodity exchange), EMU (European Monetary Union- Evropské měnové společenství), UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), WCO (The World Customs Organization), WHO (World Health Organization), UN (United Nations- OSN Organizace spojených národů), EU, Interpol (International Criminal Police Organization)

Minorities (ethnic groups): Irish (87.4%), other white (7.5%), Asian (1.3%), black (1.1%), mixed (1.1%), unspecified (1.6%)
Languages: English (official - is the language generally used), Irish (Gaelic or Galeilge - official - spoken mainly in areas along the western coast)

Religions: Roman Catholic (87,4%), Church of Ireland (2.9%), other Christian (1.9%), other (2.1%), unspecified (1.5%), none (4.2%)

Economy is based on

GDP: $46,200

Unemployment Rate: 6,2 %

Primary Sector:
Agriculture: turnips, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat; beef, dairy products
Secondary Sector:
Industry (main branches, famous branches, etc.): steel, lead, zinc, silver, aluminum, barite, and gypsum mining processing; food products, brewing, textiles, clothing; chemicals, pharmaceuticals; machinery, rail transportation equipment; glass and crystal; software, tourism
Tertiary Sector:



Country Name: conventional long form: United States of America
Conventional short form: United States
Abbreviation: US or USA
Government Type: Constitution - based federal republic, strong democratic tradition

Capital: Washington, DC

Administrative Divisions:
50 states and 1 district*: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
Area: total: 9.826.630 sq km
Land: 9.161.923 sq km
Water: 664.707 sq km
Population: 307.212.123

Suffrage (voleb. právo): 18 years of age, universal
Executive Branch (výkon.moc):
Chief of state: President Barack H. OBAMA (since 20 January 2009); Vice President Joseph R. BIDEN (since 20 January 2009); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Barack H. OBAMA (since 20 January 2009); Vice President Joseph BIDEN (since 20 January 2009)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with Senate approval

Legislative Branch (zákonodárná moc): bicameral Congress consists of the Senate (100 seats, 2 members are elected from each state by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third are elected every two years) and the House of Representatives (435 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve two-year terms)

Judical Branch (vrchní a dolní soud, ústavy): Supreme Court (nine justices; nominated by the president and confirmed with the advice and consent of the Senate; appointed to serve for life); United States Courts of Appeal; United States District Courts; State and County Courts

Main Political Parties: Democratic Party, Green Party, Libertarian Party, Republican Party

International Organizations Participation: Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, FAO, G-20, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, IDA, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, Paris Club, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WCO, WHO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Minorities (ethnic groups): white (79.96%), black (12.85%), Asian (4.43%), Amerindian and Alaska native (0.97%), native Hawaiian and other Pacific islander (0.18%), two or more races (1.61%)

Languages: English (82.1%), Spanish (10.7%), other Indo-European (3.8%), Asian and Pacific island (2.7%), other (0.7%)

Religions: Protestant (51.3%), Roman Catholic (23.9%), Mormon (1.7%), other Christian (1.6%), Jewish (1.7%), Buddhist (0.7%), Muslim (0.6%), other or unspecified (2.5%), unaffiliated (12.1%), none (4%)


Economy is based on

GDP: $47,000

Unemployment Rate: 7, 2%

Primary Sector:
Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, other grains, fruits, vegetables, cotton; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish; forest products
Secondary Sector:
Industry (main branches, famous branches, etc.): leading industrial power in the world, highly diversified and technologically advanced; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, lumber, mining
Tertiary Sector:



Country Name: conventional long form is Commonwealth of Australia, conventional short form is Australia

Government Type: federal parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm

Capital: Canberra

Administrative Divisions:
6 states and 2 territories*: Australian Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Area: total: 7.686.850 sq km
Land: 7.617.930 sq km
Water: 68.920 sq km
Population: 21.262.641

Suffrage (voleb. právo): 18 years of age, universal and compulsory

Executive Branch (výkon.moc):
Chief of state: Queen of Australia (ELIZABETH II - since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General (Quentin BRYCE - since 5 September 2008)
Head of government: Prime Minister (Kevin RUDD - since 3 December 2007); Deputy Prime Minister (Julia GILLARD - since 3 December 2007)
Cabinet: prime minister nominates, from among members of Parliament, candidates who are subsequently sworn in by the governor general to serve as government ministers

Legislative Branch (zákonodárná moc): bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the Senate (76 seats; 12 members from each of the six states and 2 from each of the two mainland territories; one-half of state members are elected every three years by popular vote to serve six-year terms while all territory members are elected every three years) and the House of Representatives (150 seats; members elected by popular preferential vote to serve terms of up to three-years; no state can have fewer than 5 representatives)

Judical Branch (vrchní a dolní soud, ústavy): High Court (the chief justice and six other justices are appointed by the governor general)

Main Political Parties: Australian Democrats, Australian Greens, Australian Labor Party, Country Liberal Party, Family First Party, Liberal Party, The Nationals

International Organizations Participation: ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, EAS, EBRD, FAO, G-20, Interpol, ISO, Paris Club, Sparteca, UNESCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Minorities (ethnic groups): white (92%), Asian (7%), aboriginal and other (1%)

Languages: English (78.5%), Chinese (2.5%), Italian (1.6%), Greek (1.3%), Arabic (1.2%), Vietnamese (1%), other (8.2%), unspecified (5.7%)

Religions: Catholic (26.4%), Anglican (20.5%), other Christian (20.5%), Buddhist (1.9%), Muslim (1.5%), other (1.2%), unspecified (12.7%), none (15.3%)

Economy is based on

GDP: $38,100

Unemployment Rate: 4,5%

Primary Sector:
Agriculture: wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits, cattle, sheep, poultry

Secondary Sector:
Industry (main branches, famous branches, etc.): industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel

Tertiary Sector:

2. Meeting Visitors

13. května 2009 v 15:38 AJ
2. Meeting visitors

1. First impression
2. Meetings
3. Taking part in a meeting

1. First impression

When meeting people, one of the important things is the first impression. We should remember that our body language, gesture and expression may tell more about us than the words that we use.

If you meet or greet your colleague or a friend it is important to look like able especially for him or her. Try to be: helpful, pleasant, open going, patient, cool and friendly. But don't try to be: aggressive, lazy, crazy, boring or arrogant.

We can start the conversations by greetings or introducing ourselves. We can use for example these greetings: Good morning, Good afternoon or if you know the person very well, you can say Hi or Hello but when we don't know the person very well it could sound a little bit angry.

Phrases of Introducing: Let me introduce myself or I'd just like to introduce myself, My name is…

Answers for introducing: It is nice to meet you, How do you do…

2. Meetings:

If you want to be friendly and start a conversation with new colleague or client, you should use these questions:

Did you have a good journey?
Do you need any help or information?
Where are you staying?
Is this your first visit to…?
When did you actually arrive?

In fact this is the "small talk". It is the type of social conversation. We can use small talk when start and end conversation.

If you are a visitor in a foreign company or if you go to start a new job follow these tips:

Arrive above five to ten minutes early.
Wear your smartest clothes.
Be pleasant at everybody you meet.
If you're a smoker, don't smoke in an office you share with someone.

You can ask for these things for example:

What are the working hours?
How are the relationships between boss and employees?
What about my salary and holiday?

As you get to know someone, it's useful to find out what your common interests are. We can talk for example about sport, travel, music, films, business and hobbies. The topic of your conversation depends on the person - if it is a man, woman, older that you or younger that you.

We have to try to make our information brief, relevant, correct and complete. It is important to speak clearly and slowly. We shouldn't interrupt the other person because it is very impolite, rude and unpleasant.

Nowadays the business still spreads. More and more foreign companies make business together. The process of a meeting is also different in each country.

3. Taking part in a meeting

Meetings are in different places. When you are in coffee restaurant you feel better than you are in office with large conference table. In coffee restaurant is the meeting more pleasant and it is not official. In the office peoples are very nervous and should be in fear from speaking.

When starting a meeting you can use those phrases:

Hello thanks for agreeing to see me.
Hello, it's good of you to come and see me.
It's good to see you again.

And than: Shall we get down to business?
There are a few questions I'd like to ask: …

When ending a meeting:

Well, I think that covers everything.
I think that's about all for the time being.
So do we agree that …?

And after you say this you put these proposals and conclusion in writing and send it to others.

3. Personal Communication

13. května 2009 v 15:38 AJ

3. Personal Communication

4. Cultural Studies

13. května 2009 v 15:38 AJ

4. Cultural studies
In the world there are very kinds of different nationalities. We can tell us what differences we expect in their behavior, manners or eating habits.
When somebody visits some foreign country, he or she wants to know everything about people who live there. They want to learn about their culture, about places of historical interest and of course about their household and national cuisine.
Every country has its typical cuisine. The most popular food in Czech Republic is dumplings with pork meat and sauerkraut.
The most popular food in China is rice with meat or vegetables; in Italy it is pasta also with meat or vegetables; Switzerland is famous for its delicious cheese.
English cuisine

Travelling to all corners of the world gets easier and easier. When we can visit foreign country we don´t have to forget for good manner and behavior. Here are some tips which can you use.

- In France you shouldn´t sit down in a café until you´ve shaken hands with everyone you know.
- In Afghanistan you should spend at least five minutes saying hello.
- In Pakistan you mustn´t wink. It si offensive.
- In the Middle East you must never use the left hand for greeting, eating, drinking, or smoking. Also, you should take care not to admire anything in your hosts´home. They will feel that they have to give it to you.
- In Russia you must match your hosts drink for drink or they will think you are unfriendly.
- In Thailand you should clasp your hands together and lower your head and your eyes when you greet someone.
- In America you should eat your hamburger with both hands and as quickly as possible. You shouldn´t try to have a conversation until it is eaten.

Using titles
Also using titles is different from country to country. For example in Italy everyone with a university degree can be called Dottore. But engineer, lawyers and architects may also expect to be called by their professional titles.
To the Germans, titles are important. Forgetting that someone should be called Herr Doktor might cause serious offence (vážná urážka). It is equally (stejně) offensive to call them by a title they do not possess (nevlastní).

In many European countries handshaking is an automatic gesture.
Handshaking is almost as popular in other countries - including Germany, Belgium and Italy. But Northern Europeans, such as the British and Scandinavians, are not quite so fond of physical demonstrations of friendliness. In France you are expected to shake hands with everyone you meet. You shouldn´t expect the Japanese to shake hand. Bowing the head is a mark of respect and the first bow of the day should be lower than when you meet there after.

Every country has also different manners during business lunch.
The British are happy to have a business lunch and discuss business matters (záležitosti) with a drink during the meal, the Japanese prefer not to work while eating. Lunch is a time to relax.
The Germans like to talk business before dinner. The French like to eat first and talk afterwards.
And if you arrange some meeting, people from different countries come in another time:
• If they´re German, they will be bang on time.
• If they are American, they will probably be 15 minutes early.
• If they are British, they will be 15 minutes late.
• And you should allow up to an hour for the Italians.

5. Communicating in Writing

13. května 2009 v 15:38 AJ
5. Communication in Writing


1. Letter, fax or e-mail
2. 7 Steps
3. Parts of business letter
4. Golden Rules
5. Memorandum

We can separate communication in writing for business and personal communication.

Types of personal communications are: postcards, e-mail, letters…

Types of business communications are: Letters, Fax or e-mail, Memos (memorandum), Notes, Report.

1. Letter, fax or e-mail

In business we need communicate with our business partner and we can do it by business letter. Sending a letter is usually the first step to start a making business or partnership. Business letters are usually sent to unknown people and so they are more formal than private letters. Our correspondence makes a very important impression. Good impression makes our original paper and writing. It is important for our image.

Writing a letter in English is much harder than writing one in your own language, careful planning is essential. Imagine, for example, you have to write a letter introducing your company to a prospective customer… you should follow these seven steps:

2. "7 Steps"

1. Write down your AIM: what is the purpose of this letter?
2. ASSAMBLE all the relevant information.
3. ARRANGE the points in order of importance. Make rough notes.
4. Write an OUTLINE in note form.
5. Write a FIRST DRAFT.
6. REVISE your first draft by considering these questions:
- does it cover all the essential points?
- is the information correct and clear (jasný)?
- are the grammar correct?
- does it look attractive?
- will it give the reader the right impression?
7. Write, type or dictate your FINAL VERSION.

3. Parts of business letter

A typical business letter has following parts:

The letter head - is usually printed and it contains the full name, the full address of the sender, telephone number, number of fax and the number of the bank's account.
There should be a firm logo:
This is very important point of our letter. To the reader it gives much information about us.

The address and the date - address is usually on the left and the date is on the right side. The number of the house in the address comes before the name of the street. Post code in Great Britain follows the name of the state. The whole post code is on the same line - in the USA. When we send our letter to a certain person in the company, we write attention under the address.

The greeting- In Great Britain we can use greeting as Dear Sirs, Dear Madam or Dear Mr. Brown.

The body of the letter - the first line of the body of the letter always starts with a capital letter.

The close of the letter - In Great Britain we can close the letter yours faithfully or yours sincerely. In the USA we can close the letter yours truly or Best wishes.

The signature and enclosures - if we send enclosures we write attention under the letter.

4. Golden Rules
For writing letters (including faxes and memos) we can use these "Golden Rules":

 Give your letter a heading.
 Decide what you are going to say before you start to write or dictate a letter.
 Use short sentences.
 Put each separate idea in a separate paragraph.
 Use short words that everyone can understand.
 Your letters should be: clear, complete, concise (stručný), courteous (zdvořilý) and correct (bez chyby)

5. Memorandum (memo)

Memorandum is confusing memo (vnitřní sdělení). Memo is a kind of business communication in writing between management and employees.

It's important to take notes on business conversations, rather than rely on your memory. As you know everybody do his or her notes otherwise (jinak).

When we make notes we can remember:
- keep notes short
- use abbreviations
- Use the dash -
- put each separate idea on a new line
- use new paragraphs, headings, CAPITAL LETTER and underlining

It's important in any writing and - especially in business - to be clear about the aims and purpose of your writing. To help your reader to make sense of you've written: be accurate (přesný), be brief (stručný), clear (jasný), be decisive (rozhodný).

6. Business Correspondence

13. května 2009 v 15:36 AJ

6. Business Correspondence

7. Telephoning Skills

13. května 2009 v 15:33 AJ
7. Telephoning Skills

8. Working Together

13. května 2009 v 15:33 AJ
8. Working together

Firms want to give a good impression. There is often some representative or a secretary who welcomes the visitors. They introduce a firm to visitors, which includes something about firm's history and firm´s departments with brief characteristic of each other.

Every company has its own company structure. It depends on number of employees and size of company. There is a top person (director) who is head of all company. Under this part of company there is a group of managers. Productivity and profit depend on them. They decide what kind of product will be manufactured and if it is available.
There are many departments such as:

Administration department
- provides office services such as typing and photocopying, is there mail room for all incoming and outgoing correspondence

Accounts department
- pays wages and salaries, keeps a record of all payments which were made and received .

Marketing department
- advertises and markets products

Purchasing department
- buys goods for the company

Sales department
- sells the products

Personnel department
- is responsible for selection employees, organizing training courses

- makes goods in the factory, organizes quality control. Visitors can see how a product is done which technologies are used.

In the companies there are many offices and the office equipment is very important
Well equipped office is very important because the employees spend there the most of their working hours. It's necessary that they can feel there comfortably and satisfied. Then they work more hard and the results of their work are better.
A very good impression also gives flowers and some pictures.

There are some basic equipment which should be in the office:

The most important thing in the office is the table and the chair.
The table should be situated near the window because of the light.
The chair must be comfortable because we sit on it most of the time.
chair - comfortable, healthy, rolling wheels, moveable, adjustable

Then there also can be diary and calendar. Calendar and diary are very necessary for making notes.
Other equipment in the office is wardrobe for our clothes and hand back.

On the floor should be carpet and on the window should be blinks.
Other equipment in the office is waste basket.
There is some technical equipment which should be in the office:
Nowadays we make our work on PC. We make our work easier and faster. Thanks the PC we can send messages and emails to our business partners or to our colloquies and ask for some advice.
In the office we should have some peripheries to the PC - keyboard, mouse, mouse mat, screen, loudspeaker, floppy and disc mechanic, hard disk, graphic card, modem for internet, printer.
Typewriting is good for writing address on the envelope.
The telephone is important if we need to talk to someone personally and we want to make sure of something. It saves our time.
If we don't want to send letters we can use the fax.
Other equipment: Scanner, Calculator, Copier, Laptop, Air conditioner, Coffee machine, Microwave oven.
The firms shouldn't save money on equipment. Their investments will certainly return with a great profit.

9. Different Kinds of Companies

13. května 2009 v 15:33 AJ
9. Different Kinds of Companies

10. Company Structure, Positions and Size of the Company

13. května 2009 v 15:33 AJ
10. Company Structure, Positions and Size of the Company

Different kind of companies

There are three sectors witch separate different kind of companies. Sectors are primary, secondary, tertiary.

 To primary sector belong: oil, energy, agriculture
 To secondary sector belong: engineering, computers, electronics, chemicals
 To tertiary sector belong: airlines, banking, hotels, restaurants

Brands for each sector for example are:
Primary - ČEZ, Shell, Paramo, British Petrols
Secondary - TPCA, Siemens, Apple
Tertiary - Hilton, ČSA, Mc Donalds

Kind of companies

1- Charted Company:

A company, which is incorporated by royal order. All power and functions of the company is under the charter. Some examples are East India Company, Charted bank of England.

2- Statutory Company:

This type of company is formed by the special order of Prime Minister, President or governor general of the country. National interest. Example is state bank of Pakistan-

3- Registered Company:

This company is formed according to the company's ordinance 1984. There are three types of registered companies.

• Unlimited company:

Liability of the share holders is unlimited. Its management is called board of directors. It has separate legal entity from its owners. Its shares are transferable

• Company Limited by Guarantee:

Every number of this company provides a guarantee to pay a specific sum of money at the time of its winding up. Example is chamber of commerce.

• Company limited by shares:

A company in which liability of the shareholders is limited to the nominal value of shares held by them is called company limited by shares.

Company organization

 Accounts Dept. - department responsible for administering a company's financial affairs

 board of directors - group of people chosen to establish policy for and control a company

 chairman UK - person who heads a Board of Directors; head of a company; chairperson

 director - a member of the board of directors

 headquarters - a company's principal or main office or centre of control

 manager - person responsible for day-to-day running of a dept.; executive officerUS

 managing director UK - senior director after the chairman responsible for day-to-day

 Marketing Dept. - department that puts goods on market, inc. packaging, advertising etc

 Personnel Dept. - department responsible for recruitment and welfare of staff or employees

 President US - the highest executive officer of a company; head of a company

 Production Dept. - department responsible for physical creation of product

 Purchasing Dept. - department responsible for finding and buying everything for a company

 R & D Department - department responsible for Research and Development of (new)
 Reception - the place where visitors and clients report on arrival at a company

 Sales Department - department responsible for finding customers and making sales

 Shareholder - person who holds or owns shares in or a part of a company or corporation

 vice president US - any of several executive officers, each responsible for a separate division

Company size

A micro-enterprise is a type of small business. A micro-enterprise is defined as a business having 5 or fewer employees and a seed capital of not more than $35,000. Typically, micro-enterprises have no access to the commercial banking sector.
Microfinance institutions have become common sources of funding for micro-enterprises, particularly in the Third World. Persons who found a micro-enterprise are usually referred to as entrepreneurs.

Small and medium enterprises are companies whose headcount or turnover falls below certain limits. EU Member States traditionally have their own definition of what constitutes an SME, for example the traditional definition in Germany had a limit of 250 employees, while, for example, in Belgium it could have been 100. But now the EU has started to standardize the concept. Its current definition categorizes companies with fewer than 50 employees as "small", and those with fewer than 250 as "medium". For EU is top size 250 employee, but in USA is top size 500 employee.

1. Ein Firmenbesuch – Erste Kontakte

13. května 2009 v 15:33 NJ
1. Ein Firmenbesuch - Erste Kontakte

11. Offers, Enquiries, Quotations, Orders

13. května 2009 v 15:33 AJ
11. Offers, Enquiries, Quotations, Orders


1. Introduction
2. Parts of the letter
3. Offers, Enquiries, Quotations, Orders
4. Important phrases

1. Introduction

In business we need communicate with our business partner and we can do it by business letter. Sending a letter is usually the first step to start a making business or partnership. Business letters are usually sent to unknown people and so they are more formal than private letters. Our correspondence makes a very important impression. Good impression makes our original paper and writing. It is important for our image.

Writing a letter in English is much harder than writing one in your own language, careful planning is essential.

We have a few types of letters: Offer= nabídka; Enquiry= poptávka ; Price Quotation= cenová nabídka; Purchasing Order= objednávka





Customer= zákazník; Supplier= dodavatel; Enquiring= poptávka; (Price) Quotation= cenová nabídka; (Purchase) Order= objednávka; Delivery note= dodací list; Invoice= faktura

2. Parts of the letter

A typical business letter has following parts: (viz question 5-commun. in writing)

The letter head - is usually printed and it contains the full name, the full address of the sender, telephone number, number of fax and the number of the bank's account.
There should be a firm logo:
This is very important point of our letter. To the reader it gives much information about us.

The address and the date - address is usually on the left and the date is on the right side. The number of the house in the address comes before the name of the street. Post code in Great Britain follows the name of the state. The whole post code is on the same line - in the USA. When we send our letter to a certain person in the company, we write attention under the address.

The greeting- In Great Britain we can use greeting as Dear Sirs, Dear Madam or Dear Mr. Brown.

The body of the letter - the first line of the body of the letter always starts with a capital letter.

The close of the letter - In Great Britain we can close the letter Yours faithfully or Yours sincerely. In the USA we can close the letter Yours truly or Best wishes.

The signature and enclosures - if we send enclosures we write attention under the letter.

3. Offer, Enquiry, Price Quotation, Purchasing order

Nowadays the trade is rather different. Many operations and many letters are done respective written until the main product is made. When a customer needs something, no matter what kind of goods is it, he first starts to look for a suitable supplier. It is not an easy process, customer must think about the best price and best services. It is also important to have a supplier with some references. It is no good to get supplies needed for production a month later even though they are much cheaper. Good idea is to get some information on the internet or to ask some other companies.

Offer: When we start the business, we need the business partner of course. To make good impression of our product, our firm we can use advertisement. We can attention customer by TV, radio, newspaper or we can send to our business partner the offer about our product.
The offer must contain all of important information, then we write precise description of the goods or services, we must not forget give information about selling terms (price, terms of payment, and terms of delivery…).

Enquiry: When the offer is good for business partner, the partner sends us the enquiry. This letter is short, brief and simple. At the beginning letter is opening phrase giving the reason for making an enquiry (I am writing to you because….- trouble with our supplier,…). Next we exactly describe what we need or if we have concern (týká se) in some service (We require … units and delivery must be completed by,… a full specification of our requirements, ....). The full specification should be on the attached sheet (přiloženém listě). In the next sentence we ask for term of delivery, terms of payment and price of the goods or services (Please quote us your best price and shipping date.). Next we can require for catalogue or samples (vzorky). In the end is closing phrase expressing hope for a favorable (příznivou) reaction (If you would like further information, please get in touch with us. We look forward to receiving an early reply.). Enquiries are not binding (závazná).

Price Quotation: Supplier can send the quotation of product with price, delivery and payment terms. At the beginning letter we should thank for customer's interest and confirm giving help. Then we can describe our product, that it's suitable for the customer. Then confirm the specification of our product - prices, terms of delivery, discounts, terms of payment, shipping date (The goods will be ready for shipment…) and optimistic ending.

Purchasing Orders: The customer sends fax, letter or email to supplier. He or she wants to order the specific goods. The customer knows the prices of the goods, total price, delivery terms and sometimes the item number.

4. Important phrases

If you require some information you can say:

Could you tell me if / when / how much / why…?
I wonder if you could tell me…?
I'd like to know…
I'd like some information about…

When someone gives you some information you can comment or reply (odpovědět):

Oh, I see.
That's interesting
Thanks for letting me know.

If someone asks you for information you can reply:

As far as I know, …
Well, I can tell you that…
I'm afraid I don't know.
I've no idea, I'm afraid.
I don't have that information available just now, can I call you back?
I'm not sure, I'll have to find out. Can I let you know tomorrow?

If you want to give someone some information you can say:

I'd like you to know that…
I think you should know that…
Did you know that…?

If someone hasn't given you enough information you can say:

Could you tell me some more about…?
I'd like some more information about…
I'd also like to know…
When/ How much / Why exactly…?
There's something else I'd like to know…
Can you give me some more details about…? (item, code no., price, delivery terms…)

12. International Trade – Ways of Payment

13. května 2009 v 15:33 AJ
12. International Trade

What Is International Trade?

International trade is the exchange of goods and services between countries. This type of trade gives rise to a world economy.

Trading globally gives consumers and countries the opportunity to be increase types of goods and services not available in their own countries. Almost every kind of product can be found on the international market: food, clothes, spare parts, oil, jewelry, wine, stocks, currencies and water. Services can be traded too: tourism, banking, consulting and transportation. Everything what you buy on global market is import, and what you sell on global market is an export.

Difference between international trade and domestic trade

The main difference is that international trade is typically more costly than domestic trade. The reasons are tariffs, time costs, transport, legal system or a different culture.

Some countries can product goods cheaper, so for some countries is better to buy these goods on an international market then make these goods by themselves. For example, US buy cheap textile and electronic from China and sell it on domestic market.


Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one location to another. You can transport by vehicles on roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals and pipelines, and terminals for example airports, railway stations, bus stations, warehouses, trucking terminals.

Types of transportation


Human-powered transport is the transport of person(s) and/or goods using human muscle-power. Example of using muscle-power: walking, running and swimming. Is popular for low cost and cost-saving. This transport is sometimes the only type available, especially in underdeveloped regions.
Humans are able to walk without infrastructure, without using roads.


Animal-powered transport use animals for the movement of people and goods. Humans may ride on animals directly or use them for carrying goods. Animals are faster, can carry more and more endurance.


Air transportation use airplanes to transport peoples or goods to long distance in short time. It is fastest way how to transport anything. But this transport cost more then other for their advantages.
In present, planes can carry many different and large cargos or many peoples. In some cases is this way of transport only one way how to delivery fast one kind of goods, food.


Train use two parallel steel rails, known as a railway.
We have got two types of trains, trains to transport peoples and trains to transport animals, goods or materials. This way of transport is one from the cheaper transportation.


The most common road vehicle is the automobile vehicle that carries its own motor. Other users of roads include buses, trucks, motorcycles, bicycles.

Automobiles offer high flexibility and low capacity. Road transport is last part of transport, from docks, train station or airports.


Water transport use boat, ship or sailboat. Over water, such as a sea, ocean, lake, canal or river. Modern sea transport is a highly effective method of transporting large cargo of goods. Transport by water is cheaper than air transport for trans-continental shipping.


Pipeline transport sends goods through a pipe, most common are gases or oil. Any chemically stable liquid or gas. Short-distance systems exist for water and beer, while long-distance networks are used for petroleum and natural gas.

International commercial terms

EXW - Ex Works (named place) - the buyer is responsible for all charges.

FOB - Free On Board - Seller must load the goods on board the ship which choose the buyer, after board on ship it pay the buyer.

CIF - Cost, Insurance and Freight - Seller must pay for insurance, transport and costs.

DDP - Delivered Duty Paid - Seller must carry all risk and cost with transport to buyer.

Invoice is commercial documents between seller and buyer. Includes number, prices, payment terms and type of product or services.

A typical invoice contains:

• The word "invoice"
• Invoice ID number
• Date of the invoice
• Name and contact details of the seller
• Tax or company registration details of seller (if relevant)
• Name and contact details of the buyer
• Date that the product was sent or delivered
• Purchase order number
• Description of the products
• Unit price of the product
• Total price
• Payment terms

Letter of credit
A letter of credit is a document issued by a financial institution, used in trade finance. Letters of credit are commonly used to loss credit risk to sellers in both domestic and international sales arrangements.

There are two basic forms of letters of credit: Standby and Documentary. Documentary letters of credit can be Revocable or Irrevocable, the first is extremely rare.

Documentary Revocable Letter of Credit
Revocable credits may be change or even canceled by the buyer without notice to the seller. Therefore, they are generally unacceptable to the seller.

Documentary Irrevocable Letter of Credit
This is the most common form of credit used in international trade. Irrevocable credits may not be modified or canceled by the buyer. Changes in the credit must be approved by both the buyer and the seller. If the documentary letter of credit does not contain whether it is revocable or irrevocable, it automatically defaults to irrevocable.

Common Problems with Letters of Credit
Sellers may have one or more of the following problems:

• The shipment schedule cannot be met
• The stipulations concerning freight costs are unacceptable
• The price becomes too low due to exchange rates fluctuations
• The quantity of product ordered is not the expected amount
• The description of product is either insufficient or too detailed
• The stipulated documents are difficult or impossible to obtain.

2. Rechtsformen der deutschen Unternehmen

13. května 2009 v 15:33 NJ
2. Rechtsformen der deutschen Unternehmen

13. Problems with Cash Flow

13. května 2009 v 15:32 AJ
13. Problems with Cash Flow

1. Introduction
2. Branch analysis
3. Terms of payment
4. Advice for business

1. Introduction
Managing Cash Flow is about making sure you have money coming in to finance the costs of the goods and service you are producing.
If you are a small business, the chances are that for every 100 crown you owe, others owe you 155 crown. In CZ you wait to 14 days to get paid (2 weeks). On the other hand, you are probably waiting up to 12 weeks to get paid while you making business with foreign country. It is not right.

Cash flow is difference between entry and issue.

We can separate cash flow into operation and investment and financial.
In to the operation cash flow entry from selling goods or services or from seling money lent, tax-expense, interest for example.
In to the investment cash flow acquisition (pořízení) and selling longtime holding (majetek).
In to the financial cash flow longtime liabilities eventually short-time liabilities.

2. Branch analysis:

This is branch analysis or Porter's five factor of Rivalry among competitors.

Threat entry of new competitors= hrozby vstupu nových konkurentů
Jak snadné nebo obtížné je pro nového konkurenta vstoupit na trh?
How easy or how difficult is it to come in market for new competitor?
Bargaining power of suppliers= vyjednávací síla dodavatelů
Jak silná je pozice dodavatelů? Jedná se o monopolní dodavatele, je jich málo nebo naopak hodně?

How hard is it position suplliers? Is it a monopoly supllier? How much is it?

Bargaining power of customers= vyjednávací síla zákazníků
Jak silná je pozice odběratelů?

How hard is it position customer?

Rivalry among competitors= konkurenční prostředí
Je mezi stávající konkurenty silný konkurenční boj?

Is it hard competitor´s conflict between existing competitors.

Threat of substitutes= hrozba substitutů
Jak snadno mohou být naše produkty a služby nahrazeny jinými?

How easy may be our products and services supply by others.
3. Terms of payment
There are 4 basic terms of payment in foreign trade.
1. Payment in advance (down payment) (předčasně).
2. Payment by means of L/C.
3. Payment after delivery.

Payment in advance (platba předem)
It is usually effected (způsobený) by a mail or transfer from the buyer's account to the seller's banking account.
a) In the export trade payment in advance is the most favorable for the seller because the risk of non-payment for the goods is totally excluded. But payment in advance is not too frequent in foreign trade because the buyers are generally (obecně) unwilling (neradi) to pay for the goods before they can lay hands on them. If they agree to it they insist on a special discount on the price.
b) In the import trade on the other hand payment in advance is the least advantageous of all terms of payment because it is a credit transaction with all its risks.

A letter of credit - L/C
It is the most current and one of the best means of payment. The buyer instructs his bank to open an account with a bank in the seller's favor (přízeň). Irrevocable (neodvolatelný) L/C means that it cannot be recalled before the date of expiry ... (uplynutí)
In foreign trade payments are usually made by irrevocable L/C against shipping documents.

Payment on credit (na úvěr) - payment after delivery. (platba po dodání)
In the export trade selling on credit is usually the worst term of payment. After the buyer has taken possession (vlastnictví) of the goods it depends only on him when and how much he will pay. It is difficult for the seller to force him to do so often even by legal action. Therefore before the buyer is granted credit the seller must get a complete Credit Report (informace o úvěroschopnosti). It is information about his financial standing, yearly turnover (roční obrat), and regularity of payments to other sellers. If the seller does not find the buyer reliable (spolehlivý) enough, he either insist on another term of payment or he asks for banker's guarantee.

14. Dealing with Complaints

13. května 2009 v 15:32 AJ
14. Dealing with Complaints
Welcome to our presentation about Dealing with Complaints.
The most often problems or mistakes for dealing are:
• when the goods is crashed - it could be bring about a handling for example by forklift or when it is transported
• or when you get a wrong quantity of goods
• the price is miscalculated
• or when the delivery term isn't keep
• the goods hasn't requested quality
• or the payment isn't effected (uskutečněna)

In the companies you can find many departments. Two of them are Quality Assurance and Quality Control. The first mentioned is superior to the second. For both departments the quality is on the 1. place. The complains and claims are headed (směřovány) to these departments.
And now we would like to tell you some useful phrases and expressions of complaining, apologizing and acceptation of apology (odezva na omluvu):
If you want to complain to a person you don ´t know well, be careful! It may be best to mention the problem indirectly by saying:
 I ´m sorry to have to say this but…
(Promiňte, že musím říct…)
 I ´m sorry to bother you but …
(Promiňte, že vás obtěžuji…)
 I think you may have forgotten…
(Myslím, že jste možná zapomněli…)
 It may have slipped your mind…
(Možná vám to vyklouzlo z paměti…)
 There may have been a misunderstanding about…

In some situations, but only if you are talking to someone you know really well, it may be necessary to say more directly:
 What are you going to do about…? (Co budete dělat s…?)
 I ´m not at all satisfied with… (Nejsem vůbec spokojen s….)

But only in extreme cases, if you've already tried more polite methods, would you have to threaten someone:
 Look, if you don ´t send your engineer to repair the machine, we will be forced to (nuceni) cancel our next order.

If someone complains to you, it may be wise to apologize - even if it wasn't really your fault. You can say:
 Sorry, my fault!
 I ´m very sorry, I didn't realize.
 There has been a problem in our …. dept.

If you want to accept someone ´s apology, you can say:
 That 's all right!
 It 's perfectly all right. (Naprosto v pořádku.)
 It really doesn't matter. (To opravdu nevadí.)
Mentioned phrases you can use in face-to-face contact or on the phone.

And there are phrases you can use in writing way:
If someone complaints to you in the letter of fax, you can answer:
 We are very sorry about the delay…
 We wish to apologize for… (Rádi bychom se omluvili za…)
 Please accept our apologies for… (Přijměte naše omluvy za…)

The person you are talking to will want to know the reasons of mistakes, he or she assumes that someone in your company is to blame and that they've been:
o inefficient - neschopný
o clumsy - nešikovný
o slow - pomalý
o careless - neopatrný
o impolite - nezdvořilý
o forgetful - zapomětlivý
o or unhelpful - neochotný
If you don't want to accept responsibility or blame another person, you could offer an excuse. It could be for example:
o a clerical error
o a computer error
o or a shortage of staff

So that ´s all. And now we would like to ask you to some questions:
1. Do you know which departments are claims and complaints headed to?
2. Please tell us some excuse if you don't want to accept responsibility another person.
3. Do you know the most often mistakes or problems for dealing? Please tell us 3 examples at least.

15. Travelling on Business Trips

13. května 2009 v 15:32 AJ
15. Travelling on Business Trips

A business trip or official trip is a journey caused by business, to visit customers, suppliers or a trade fair. So if you travel to foreign country you be able to do some necessary things.
First of all is book accommodation and tickets, if you will take the plane or train. But you can go by your own car if you have the choice.
Book tickets

You can book it by e-mail or by telephone. Try to find out the best time, be ready for delay, don't book the last way of flight. So you have more time to solve problem if they come.
Phrases: I would like to reserve a seat on flight number XXX to XXX.
I would like to change my reservation on flight number XXX on the 16th of this month.
One business class / economy to XXX please.
Can you tell me what time flight number XXX is due to arrive?
Book accommodation

Find out what hotels are available in location of your business trip. Near the place when you have to be on business, with good prices and good ways of traffic.
How to book accommodation:
Introduce yourself, your name and company name. When you are booking accommodation for someone, accommodate it for his or her name.
Find out which rooms are available from XXX to XXX. Explain your requirements: single or more bed room, room fridge, television, connection to internet (because you have with you your notebook), own bathroom or all inclusive menu. When booking a hotel via fax is good at the end of write "confirm by return".
Find out the cost, differences between rooms, what things are in the cost. If you want to do business in hotel ask them for quiet rooms and choose the best for your requirements. You can pay it before by money transfer or on the place by cash, credit card.

How to pack for a business trip

One of the hardest things about preparing for a business trip is figuring out what to pack.
1. The Right Clothing: Many travelers are packaging too much, especially woman package many clothes, but don´t wear all of them. Think about comfort clothes, when you travel by train, bus or plane, think about comfort shoes, pants, shirts etc. It's good to take with you replacement business clothes.

2. Printed Documents: Make sure your itinerary includes contact information for the airline, the hotel you are staying at, and the car rental or pick-up service you're using. Keep a copy of your schedule with the phone numbers and addresses of the people that you are meeting. Print out the directions to your meetings, to insure that you know where you are going, and arrive on time.

3. Chargers: The easiest things to forget before you travel are the chargers for electronics like your laptop or cellular phone. Don't forget them and place them on top of your suitcase the night before you leave. You can recharge your all electronic devices before you leave.

4. Passport - A passport is a document, which certifies the identity and nationality of its holder. Passport include name of holder, date of birth, sex, place of birth and nationality personal documents - like ID, driving licence. Money and tickets.

And this is some tips for you, if you are visiting foreign country:
 Keep valuable documents out of sight.
 Keep your passport, tickets and other important documents with you.
 Use traveler cheques not cash.
 Photocopy the information page of your passport.
 Keep your hotel key with you when you leave the hotel.

16. At the Hotel, Local Knowledge

13. května 2009 v 15:32 AJ
16. At the hotel, local knowledge

There are some differences between hotel for businessman on travel or family on holiday. Everyone have their own requests. For example for manager is important internet connection, quiet room for meeting.

For family is important the price of the hotel for room or services, place for parking in area of hotel or near the hotel, when it is family with kids they need some place where parents can take a seat, have o coffee and watch their kids how they are playing on the kids place.
Everyone choose hotel in line with atmosphere (if the hotel is large, streamline and modern or small, traditional and intimate). By location, if the hotel is in centre, or out of town or in quiet side street.

There are some facilities which you can request from the hotel and you can use them to choose the right hotel right for you:
Buffet, 24-hour coffee shop, fitness centre, free car parking, sauna, swimming pool, video movies, hotel restaurant.

Types of hotels

ETAP is a European chain of hotels owned by the Accor Group. There are several branches in major cities and close to transport hubs like the Eurotunnel
The rooms are simply and in most cases the walls are whitewashed; they include a small desk, television (sometimes with cable/international channels) with a bunk bed, a shower and a toilet.
All ETAP hotels have a breakfast area, a reception and an automatic reception for out of hours check-ins. There are over 370 hotels together in Europe and Asia, most of them are in France.

Formule 1
Hotel Formule 1 is an international chain of "super low budget" or "no frills" hotels owned by the Accor Group. Rooms are sold at around €29 per night.
There are 380 hotels in 13 countries. As with ETAP, most are located in France.
As with most hotels in this price range the doors and hotel entrances in Europe have coded locks.
On the Internet, you can book up to 2 rooms for 6 consecutive nights at the same Formule 1 hotel.
If you wish to book more rooms or more nights, you can make another reservation.

Hostel is cheap touristic accommodation, in most cases for students. Hostel is less privacy then hotels, they have shared bathroom, sleeping room and other equipment.
There are several differences between hostels and hotels. Some major advantages of hostels include:
 Hostels tend to be budget-oriented; rates are considerably lower, and many hostels have programs to share books, DVDs and other items.
 For those who prefer an informal environment, hostels do not usually have the same level of formality as hotels.
 For those who prefer to socialize with their fellow guests, hostels usually have more common areas and opportunities to socialize.

Local knowledge
You are the expert on the place where you live. And your visitor may expect you to know how to get to places and to explain local customs and habits.
Make him a list of customs and habits which might be different from their country. There are some tips:
 Eating - popular restaurants, meal times
 Public transport - how do you get tickets?
 Shopping - where to buy food, clothes and where are supermarkets.
 Work - what kind of clothes to wear, office hours.
 Entertainments - where can you go dancing, drink coffee.
 Sports - where can you play tennis, swim, work out.
You can prepare for your visitor a list of some famous local names or people who are well-known in your country and other important information, for example:
Local politicians, capital and largest city, official languages, government, area, population and time zone. Are also important phone numbers to the police, fire department and ambulance. If he drive car in your country, tell him about traffic laws, for example: speed limits.
Here are some phrases you can use when giving directions:
 It will take about 20 minutes on foot.
 It is a bit complicated; I would better show you on the map.
 Continue along that road for three blocks till you come to a church.
The visitor needs to know how to get to all the important parts of your town or city. Draw a rough street plan before you start - or the host could draw the map for the visitor as he or she explains how to get to each place.

17. The Marketing Mix, Management Analyses

13. května 2009 v 15:32 AJ


1. Marketing Mix
2. Advertisements and commercials
3. Management Analyses

1. Marketing Mix

Marketing involves: a) finding out which goods and services people want
b) providing them
c) pricing them
d) promotion and advertising them
e) distributing them to the final consumer

The aim of good marketing is that firms should find out which goods and services people want. So market research (průzkum) finds out what it is. It involves collecting and analysing information about products on market.

It is information about consumer's age, sex, income (příjmech), jobs, likes and dislikes, where they live, which newspaper they read or when they watch television.

The main activities (points) of the marketing are known as the 4P´s:
The 4P´s together are known as the marketing mix.

Business strategy:
7P´s includes price, place, product, promotion, physical planning (evidence), process and people.

Before we start with business, we must find out which product or services people want. A total product includes the image of the product.
There are many ways to price a product. Price must be attractive to customers. We must the cost of production and provide a profit for the firm.

Place is also known as channel, distribution. Place involves choosing the channels of distribution goods and services. Products may go through various channels of distribution:
a) producer - end users
b) producer - retailers (maloobchodníci)- end users
c) producer - wholesalers - reatilers - end users
d) producer - market - wholesalers - reatilers - end users
e) producer - mail-order houses - end users

Promotion is presenting the product to the customers. (Promotion is advertising, public relations, publicity and personal selling.)

There are many types of promotion: advertising on TV or radio, newspaper, leaflets, mails, phone, brochures, packaging the goods, showrooms. We can use free samples or special offers like stands at trade fairs and exhibitions, on sports sponsorship.

Promoting a product doesn't involve advertising, It involves considering it as a Total Product: its brand name, presentation, labeling and after- sales service. A service is also a product and customers must be made aware of what is being offered.

2. Advertisements and commercials

When promoting a product, you must develop a Unique Selling Proposition (USP). It means the FEATURES (rysy) and BENEFITS (výhody) of your goods or services. It is one way how to differ between other products.

There are four stages in promoting a product (AIDA):

1 attract the ATTENTION of potential customers
2 arouse (zvyšte) INTEREST in the product
3 create a DESIRE for its benefits
4 encourage (povzbudit) customers to take prompt ACTION

The ad (advertisememt) is very old way how to let the consumer know about certain goods. In old days the ways of promoting the products were a few. A man could just stand in the market and shout something like: " Very nice apples, pears, come and buy". If a consumer was interested in he came and bought it.

The first newspaper printed ad appeared in the 17th in England. In these ads the main subject was books and medicines. The brand names appeared after the Industrial revolution in the 19th century. Today the commercials are more and more seen and heard thru screens of TV and monitors (when we are connect with internet) and speakers of radios. The ads are big business now, companies invest more and more money and even the product which is more or less useful or unuseful is sold. On TV a consumer can see the advertised product, hear the commentary and listen to some music. All of these aspect are very important when "selling" the product.

The aim of people who creates the commercials is to make you believe that this product must be very good. And when you stroll through supermarkets and see the advertised product, you certainly remember the commercial and buy it. People created methods how to make the other people buy the things they would probably never bought.

3. Management Analyses

The Boston Consulting Group (BCG) is a global management consulting firm, founded by Bruce Henderson in 1963. In the 1970s, BCG created and popularized the "growth-share matrix", a simple chart (diagram) to assist large corporations in deciding how to allocate (přidělit) cash among (mezi) their business units (jednotka). The corporation would categorize its business units as "Question Marks", "Stars", "Cash Cows", and "Death Dogs", and then allocate cash accordingly (podle toho), moving money from "question marks" toward "stars" and "cash cows" that had higher market growth rates, and hence higher upside potential.

Branch analysis:

Michael Porter's famous Five Forces of Competitive Position model provides a simple perspective for assessing (zhodnocení) and analysing the competitive strength and position of a corporation or business organization.

This is branch analysis or Porter's five factor of Rivalry among competitors.

Threat entry of new competitors= hrozby vstupu nových konkurentů
Bargaining power of suppliers= vyjednávací síla dodavatelů
Bargaining power of customers= vyjednávací síla zákazníků
Rivalry among competitors= konkurenční prostředí
Threat of substitutes= hrozba substitutů

SWOT analysis:

The SWOT analysis is an extremely useful tool for understanding and decision-making for all sorts of situations in business and organizations. SWOT is an acronym (zkratka) for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats. The SWOT analysis headings provide a good framework (system) for reviewing (hodnotící) strategy, position and direction (pokyny) of a company or business proposition (návrhy), or any other idea. You can use this analysis for business planning, marketing, business and product developments. Here are some examples of what a SWOT analysis can be used to assess (hodnocení): a company (its position in the market), a method of sales distributions, a product or brand, a business idea, a potential partnership, changing a supplier, outsourcing a service… Be sure that you describe the subject for the SWOT analysis clearly. The SWOT analysis is the definite (finished) analysis.

18. Advertisements and Commercials

13. května 2009 v 15:31 AJ
18. Advertisements and commercials

Advertising is a form of communication that tries to persuade people to buy a particular brand of product or service. Advertising has a great influence on sale. There are several types of advertisements. We can see them in magazines or newspapers, leaflets, on TV or hear them on the radio. The Internet is a new advertising medium.

A series of advertisements for a particular company or product is an advertising campaign.
A person or business that advertises is an advertiser.
An organization that designs and manages advertising campaigns is an advertising agency.

Promoting a product involves developing a "Unique Selling Proposition" (USP): the features and benefits which make it unlike any of the competing products.

There are four stages in promoting a product = AIDA
1) attract the ATTENTION of potential customer
2) arouse INTEREST in the product (for example - you look into leaflets for a product)
3) create a DESIRE for its benefits
4) encourage customers to take prompt ACTION - buy a product
5) sometimes we can add "S" as SATISFACTION - when the customer is satisfied he or she returns and recommends it to another people

A good advertisement should have:
• a well-targeted headline - a good headline should catch the reader's attention and make them want to read on
• clear design - the way an advertisement looks plays a big part in attracting the reader's interest
• well-written copy - the amount of text you include depends on the purpose and size of the advertisement. Businesses that want to advertise a sale might have a very limited amount of text together with a headline and a picture.
Businesses have a duty to ensure their advertisements are legal, decent, honest and truthful.