1. English Speaking Countries

13. května 2009 v 15:39 |  AJ
1. English speaking countries (Ireland, USA, Autralia)

English-speaking countries are the countries where the main language is English. English is a Western Germanic language originating in England. Is the third most widely used language in the world. Today, English is spoken in many countries around the world.

The mother tongue is also used in these countries: United Kingdom, Ireland, United States of America, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and South Africa. English is used among people from different countries who do not understand each other, but use it as an international means of communication.


Ireland

I POLITICAL SYSTEM:

Country Name: conventional short form is Ireland or local short form is Eire

Government Type: republic, parliamentary democracy

Capital: Dublin

Administrative Divisions:
26 counties: Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork, Donegal, Dublin, Galway, Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim, Limerick, Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon, Sligo, Tipperary, Waterford, Westmeath, Wexford, Wicklow
Area: total: 70.280 sq km
land: 68.890 sq km
water: 1.390 sq km
Population: 4.203.200

Suffrage (voleb. právo): 18 years of age, universal

Executive Branch (výkon.moc)
Chief of state: President (Mary MCALEESE - since 11 November 1997)
Head of government: Prime Minister (Brian COWEN - since 7 May 2008)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with previous nomination by the prime minister and approval of the House of Representatives

Legislative Branch (zákonodárná moc): bicameral Parliament or Oireachtas consists of the Senate or Seanad Eireann (60 seats; 49 members elected by the universities and from candidates put forward by five vocational panels, 11 are nominated by the prime minister; to serve five-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Dail Eireann (166 seats; members are elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve five-year terms)

Judical Branch (vrchní a dolní soud, ústavy): Supreme Court (judges appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister and cabinet)

Main Political Parties: the Green Party, Fania Fail, the Progressive Democrats, Labor Party, the Workers' Party

International Organizations Participation: CE (commodity exchange), EMU (European Monetary Union- Evropské měnové společenství), UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), WCO (The World Customs Organization), WHO (World Health Organization), UN (United Nations- OSN Organizace spojených národů), EU, Interpol (International Criminal Police Organization)

Minorities (ethnic groups): Irish (87.4%), other white (7.5%), Asian (1.3%), black (1.1%), mixed (1.1%), unspecified (1.6%)
Languages: English (official - is the language generally used), Irish (Gaelic or Galeilge - official - spoken mainly in areas along the western coast)

Religions: Roman Catholic (87,4%), Church of Ireland (2.9%), other Christian (1.9%), other (2.1%), unspecified (1.5%), none (4.2%)

II ECONOMY
Economy is based on

GDP: $46,200

Unemployment Rate: 6,2 %

Primary Sector:
Agriculture: turnips, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat; beef, dairy products
Mining:
Secondary Sector:
Industry (main branches, famous branches, etc.): steel, lead, zinc, silver, aluminum, barite, and gypsum mining processing; food products, brewing, textiles, clothing; chemicals, pharmaceuticals; machinery, rail transportation equipment; glass and crystal; software, tourism
Tertiary Sector:



USA

I POLITICAL SYSTEM:


Country Name: conventional long form: United States of America
Conventional short form: United States
Abbreviation: US or USA
Government Type: Constitution - based federal republic, strong democratic tradition

Capital: Washington, DC

Administrative Divisions:
50 states and 1 district*: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
Area: total: 9.826.630 sq km
Land: 9.161.923 sq km
Water: 664.707 sq km
Population: 307.212.123

Suffrage (voleb. právo): 18 years of age, universal
Executive Branch (výkon.moc):
Chief of state: President Barack H. OBAMA (since 20 January 2009); Vice President Joseph R. BIDEN (since 20 January 2009); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
Head of government: President Barack H. OBAMA (since 20 January 2009); Vice President Joseph BIDEN (since 20 January 2009)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with Senate approval

Legislative Branch (zákonodárná moc): bicameral Congress consists of the Senate (100 seats, 2 members are elected from each state by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third are elected every two years) and the House of Representatives (435 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve two-year terms)

Judical Branch (vrchní a dolní soud, ústavy): Supreme Court (nine justices; nominated by the president and confirmed with the advice and consent of the Senate; appointed to serve for life); United States Courts of Appeal; United States District Courts; State and County Courts

Main Political Parties: Democratic Party, Green Party, Libertarian Party, Republican Party

International Organizations Participation: Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, FAO, G-20, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, IDA, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, Paris Club, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WCO, WHO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Minorities (ethnic groups): white (79.96%), black (12.85%), Asian (4.43%), Amerindian and Alaska native (0.97%), native Hawaiian and other Pacific islander (0.18%), two or more races (1.61%)

Languages: English (82.1%), Spanish (10.7%), other Indo-European (3.8%), Asian and Pacific island (2.7%), other (0.7%)

Religions: Protestant (51.3%), Roman Catholic (23.9%), Mormon (1.7%), other Christian (1.6%), Jewish (1.7%), Buddhist (0.7%), Muslim (0.6%), other or unspecified (2.5%), unaffiliated (12.1%), none (4%)

II ECONOMY

Economy is based on

GDP: $47,000

Unemployment Rate: 7, 2%

Primary Sector:
Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, other grains, fruits, vegetables, cotton; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish; forest products
Mining:
Secondary Sector:
Industry (main branches, famous branches, etc.): leading industrial power in the world, highly diversified and technologically advanced; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, lumber, mining
Tertiary Sector:


Australia

I POLITICAL SYSTEM:


Country Name: conventional long form is Commonwealth of Australia, conventional short form is Australia

Government Type: federal parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm

Capital: Canberra

Administrative Divisions:
6 states and 2 territories*: Australian Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Area: total: 7.686.850 sq km
Land: 7.617.930 sq km
Water: 68.920 sq km
Population: 21.262.641

Suffrage (voleb. právo): 18 years of age, universal and compulsory

Executive Branch (výkon.moc):
Chief of state: Queen of Australia (ELIZABETH II - since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General (Quentin BRYCE - since 5 September 2008)
Head of government: Prime Minister (Kevin RUDD - since 3 December 2007); Deputy Prime Minister (Julia GILLARD - since 3 December 2007)
Cabinet: prime minister nominates, from among members of Parliament, candidates who are subsequently sworn in by the governor general to serve as government ministers

Legislative Branch (zákonodárná moc): bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the Senate (76 seats; 12 members from each of the six states and 2 from each of the two mainland territories; one-half of state members are elected every three years by popular vote to serve six-year terms while all territory members are elected every three years) and the House of Representatives (150 seats; members elected by popular preferential vote to serve terms of up to three-years; no state can have fewer than 5 representatives)

Judical Branch (vrchní a dolní soud, ústavy): High Court (the chief justice and six other justices are appointed by the governor general)

Main Political Parties: Australian Democrats, Australian Greens, Australian Labor Party, Country Liberal Party, Family First Party, Liberal Party, The Nationals

International Organizations Participation: ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, EAS, EBRD, FAO, G-20, Interpol, ISO, Paris Club, Sparteca, UNESCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Minorities (ethnic groups): white (92%), Asian (7%), aboriginal and other (1%)

Languages: English (78.5%), Chinese (2.5%), Italian (1.6%), Greek (1.3%), Arabic (1.2%), Vietnamese (1%), other (8.2%), unspecified (5.7%)

Religions: Catholic (26.4%), Anglican (20.5%), other Christian (20.5%), Buddhist (1.9%), Muslim (1.5%), other (1.2%), unspecified (12.7%), none (15.3%)

II ECONOMY
Economy is based on

GDP: $38,100

Unemployment Rate: 4,5%

Primary Sector:
Agriculture: wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits, cattle, sheep, poultry
Mining:

Secondary Sector:
Industry (main branches, famous branches, etc.): industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel

Tertiary Sector:







 

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