19. Promoting Products and Brands

13. května 2009 v 15:31 |  AJ
19. Promoting Products and Brands


1. Introduction
2. Advertisements
3. Brand names
4. Competing brands

1. Introduction

Promotion is one of the four key aspects of the marketing mix. MM is one tool of the marketing.

Promotion represents all of the communications that a marketer may use in the marketplace. Promotion has four distinct (různé prvky) elements - advertising, public relations, word of mouth and point of sale. Advertising covers any communication that is paid for, from television and cinema commercials, radio and Internet adverts through print media and billboards.

Promoting a product doesn't involve advertising, it involves considering it as a Total Product: its brand name, presentation, labeling and after- sales service. A service is also a product and customers must be made aware of what is being offered.

You should promoting a products by: brochures, catalogues, leaflets, packaging, direct mail, point of sale displays (ochutnávky), press releases (reklama v tisku), showrooms, stands at trade fairs and exhibitions, sport sponsorship, word of mouth.

But sometimes all of these methods are not suitable for promoting some products. For example: when we promote cheese. We can use these types of promoting: leaflets, point of sale displays, press releases and word of mount. But we can't use these types of promoting: brochures, direct mail, showrooms and sport sponsorship, for example. For example: when we promote hotel. We can use these types of promoting: brochures, catalogues and press releases. But we can't use these types of promoting: showrooms, sport sponsorship, word of mouth, for example. Showrooms are usually used for promoting cosmetics, shoes and clothes. Direct mail is usually spam and it is unpleasant for users.

2. Advertisements

For promoting products we can use advertisements.

The ad (advertisement) is very old way how to let the consumer know about certain goods. In old days the ways of promoting the products were a few. A man could just stand in the market and shout something like: " Very nice apples, pears, come and buy". If a consumer was interested in he came and bought it. Today the commercials are more and more seen and heard thru screens of TV and monitors (when we are connect with internet) and speakers of radios. The ads are big business now. Companies invest more and more money into them. The aim of people who creates the commercials is to make you believe that this product must be very good. They created methods how to sell unuseful or less useful products.

When promoting a product, you must develop a Unique Selling Proposition (USP). It means the FEATURES (rysy) and BENEFITS (výhody). It is one way how to differ between other products.

There are four stages in promoting a product (AIDA):

1 attract the ATTENTION of potential customers
2 arouse (zvyšte) INTEREST in the product
3 create a DESIRE for its benefits
4 encourage (povzbudit) customers to take prompt ACTION.

3. Brand names

In some cases brand names should sound strange or comic to our ears. Some names are often used in foreign countries to make products sound more international. Many foreign brand names just don't sound quite right in Britain, for example. Here are a few examples of brand names which would have to be changed if they wanted to sell the products on the British market. Bum - that is a brand of bubble gum. There is Mother, a brand of biscuits and Bimbo that is a brand of bread. It sounds a little bit funny.

For example the four-wheel drive Mitsubishi Shogun (it is called in the UK), but in most countries it is called the Pajero - except in Spanish- speaking countries where that word is very rude indeed. There the same car is the Ranchero. Many international car names have been invented (smyšlený) specially. They don't mean anything in any language but they're just supposed (předpokládaný) to sound attractive - most of the brands are invented words.

But sometimes they may have to change the brand name to make it acceptable in different countries. In Europe, General Motors cars are marketed under the Opel brand name. In Britain, these cars are Vauxhalls - a name that most Europeans find very hard to pronounce. But there is a definite trend to create European brands: the Opel Kadett used to be called the Astra in the UK, now it is the Astra all over Europe. In the USA they have a car called the Rabbit - a sort of light-hearted, amusing image, hasn't it? That's what we call the VW Golf, because consumers here seem to prefer some serious sporty image.

4. Competing brands

Some competing brands are:

Pepsi Cola and Coca Cola.
Mc Donallds and KFC.
Kodak and Fuji.
Philips and Sony.
Nescafe and Jacobs.


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